The urban environment and children's health : Soils as an integrator of lead, zinc, and cadmium in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
Soils are evaluated as a diagnostic tool of environmental conditions that influence health.
The samples for this study are urban topsoil (0-2.5 cm depth) samples (n=4026) analyzed for Pb, Zn, and Cd by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES).
The parent materials for New Orleans soils are derived from the Mississippi River, and alluvium from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (n=31) serve as control samples for this study.
The urban samples were stratified by census tract (n=286).
Blood Pb (BL) levels of children <=6 years were also stratified by census tract and paired with soil Pb (SL) (n=175).
A significant association (P=1.2x10-23) was found between median BL and median SL.
The association was modeled by BL=3.06+0.33 (SL) 0.5 (correlation coefficient=0.69 between the modeled BL and the observed BL and P=3.5x10-22).
A median SL threshold (>=310 mug g-1) and<310 mug g-1) for higher metal census tracts (HMCTs) and lower metal census tracts (LMCTs), respectively, represents median BL exposures above and below 9 mug dL-1.
HMCTs and LMCTs were characterized by demographic and socioeconomic data.
HMCTs are more likely (P=4.5x10-6) inhabited by Blacks than by Whites.
Of 13,803 children<6 years in HMCTs, 75% are Black and 22% are White, with other making up the remaining 3%. In LMCTs, the Black to White children ratio is 50 : 50.
In HMCTs, socioeconomic indicators for Blacks are depressed compared to Whites.
Zn and Cd are potentially phytotoxic in HMCTs. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Milieu urbain, Prévention, Sol, Louisiane, Etats Unis, Amérique du Nord, Amérique, Pollution, Environnement, Teneur, Analyse quantitative, Analyse chimique, Plomb, Zinc, Cadmium, Métal lourd, Géochimie, Taux, Sang, Liquide biologique, Enfant, Homme, Epidémiologie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Urban environment, Prevention, Soils, Louisiana, United States, North America, America, Pollution, Environment, Content, Quantitative analysis, Chemical analysis, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Heavy metal, Geochemistry, Rate, Blood, Biological fluid, Child, Human, Epidemiology
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 99-0448728
Code Inist : 002B03M01. Création : 22/03/2000.