Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood-borne pathogens.
In the United States, IDUs account for nearly one-third of the cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), either directly or indirectly (heterosexual and perinatal cases of AIDS where the source of infection was an IDU).
IDUs also account for a substantial proportion of cases of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infections.
The primary mode of transmission for HIV among IDUs is parenteral, through direct needle sharing or multiperson use of syringes.
Despite high levels of knowledge about risk, multiperson use of needles and syringes is due primarily to fear of arrest and incarceration for violation of drug paraphernalia laws and ordinances that prohibit manufacture, sale, distribution, or possession of equipment and materials intended to be used with narcotics.
It is estimated that in 1997 there were approximately 110 needle exchange programs (NEPs) in North America.
In part, because of the ban on the use of Federal funds for the operation of needle exchange, it has been difficult to evaluate the efficacy of these programs.
This chapter presents data from the studies that have evaluated the role of NEPs in HIV prevention. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : SIDA, Virose, Infection, Toxicomanie, Echange, Aiguille, Seringue, Programme sanitaire, Prévention, Facteur risque, Evaluation, Homme, Etats Unis, Amérique du Nord, Amérique, Immunopathologie, Immunodéficit
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : AIDS, Viral disease, Infection, Drug addiction, Exchange, Needle, Syringe, Sanitary program, Prevention, Risk factor, Evaluation, Human, United States, North America, America, Immunopathology, Immune deficiency
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 99-0414228
Code Inist : 002B05C02D. Création : 22/03/2000.