Airway diseases, predominantly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are among the world's most prevalent diseases.
The prevalence of asthma has been increasing over the past 20 yr in most countries where this has been studied, and it affects up to 10% of the populations of most developed countries.
COPD is the sixth cause of death in the world and affects 4-6% of people more than 45 yr of age.
In 1985, more than 5.4 million Americans were estimated to have COPD and COPD is the most rapidly rising cause of death among individuals over the age of 65 yr in the United States (1).
These diseases constitute a major financial burden to society, with both direct and indirect costs.
Both asthma and COPD are identified by the presence of characteristic symptoms and functional abnormalities, with airway obstruction being the sine qua non of both diseases.
The airway obstruction in asthma must be reversible to establish a diagnosis, whereas COPD is defined as a syndrome characterized by abnormal tests of expiratory flow that do not change markedly over periods of several months of observation (2).
Both diseases are now known to be caused by lung inflammation induced by different initiating factors, most likely environmental allergens, occupational sensitizing agents, or viral respiratory infections in asthma and cigarette smoking in COPD.
However, some patients with asthma who do not smoke also develop irreversible airway obstruction similar to COPD. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Asthme, Bronchopneumopathie obstructive, Chronique, Physiopathologie, Traitement, Chimiothérapie, Epidémiologie, Facteur risque, Corticostéroïde, Homme, Modèle animal, Article synthèse, Appareil respiratoire pathologie, Poumon pathologie, Bronche pathologie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Asthma, Obstructive pulmonary disease, Chronic, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Chemotherapy, Epidemiology, Risk factor, Corticosteroid, Human, Animal model, Review, Respiratory disease, Lung disease, Bronchus disease
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 99-0300684
Code Inist : 002B11B. Création : 16/11/1999.