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  1. Overview of residual disinfection practice by European water suppliers.

    Article, Communication - En anglais

    IWSA international specialized conference. Mülheim an der Ruhr, DEU, 1998/09/28.

    Europe contains a wide variety of water resource types, treatment practices and water supply infrastructures.

    For example, some parts are relatively sparsely populated, and are served almost entirely by small, local groundwater-derived systems, whereas other parts, particularly in areas of high population density, have large surface water derived systems and complex interconnected distribution networks.

    All European countries aim for the same microbiological standards.

    These are largely based on the existing European Directive on Drinking Water Quality that was adopted in 1990.

    The main parametric standards are 0/100 ml faecal coliforms, 0/100 ml total coliforms (with 95% compliance) at the tap, and standards are also set for sulphite reducing clostridia, faecal streptococci and colony counts.

    A further general requirement is that water should not contain any other micro-organisms such as viruses which could cause danger to health, although no numeric standards are set.

    The approach to meeting microbiological standards varies considerably between different European countries.

    In part this is explained by the different raw water types ; for example there are some areas with very high quality groundwater that can be safely distributed to customers without any disinfection at all.

    Nevertheless, disinfection is a vital treatment requirement in the overwhelming majority of supply systems. (...)

    Mots-clés Pascal : Traitement eau potable, Désinfection, Réseau adduction eau, Europe, Norme qualité eau, Microbicidie, Désinfectant, Organisation internationale, Maintenance, Eau surface, Source eau, Exigence usager, Biofilm, Résidu traitement

    Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Drinking water treatment, Disinfection, Water supply system network, Europe, Water quality standard, Microbicidal effect, Disinfecting agent, International organization, Maintenance, Surface water, Water spring, User requirement, Biofilm, Tailings

    Logo du centre Notice produite par :
    Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique

    Cote : 99-0138149

    Code Inist : 001D14J03. Création : 16/11/1999.