Mass population screening for asymptomatic neoplastic disease is now national policy in the UK for breast cancer and has been established for many years in the early diagnosis of carcinoma of the cervix.
Cancer screening is based on the concept that treatment is more effective when the disease is localised and aims to detect it when it is at a less advanced clinico-pathological stage prior to the development of symptoms.
Because colorectal cancer develops in benign adenomatous polyps which are often amenable to endoscopic resection, screening may both reduce the incidence of the disease as well as improving outcome from it.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy screening focuses mainly on the detection of potentially malignant adenomas, their endoscopic removal producing a decrease in colorectal cancer incidence.
It is a promising approach but conclusive data on effectiveness from a Medical Research Council-sponsored multicentre randomised controlled trial will not be available before 2006.
Faecal occult blood testing aims to preferentially detect early stage invasive disease.
Three randomised controlled trials of faecal occult blood screening show that the disease can be detected earlier in its development leading to reduced mortality from the disease - and that this is achieved at reasonable cost.
The Department of Health is currently giving consideration to its national implementation.
Mots-clés Pascal : Tumeur maligne, Côlon, Rectum, Dépistage, Analyse coût efficacité, Homme, Appareil digestif pathologie, Intestin pathologie, Côlon pathologie, Rectum pathologie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Malignant tumor, Colon, Rectum, Medical screening, Cost efficiency analysis, Human, Digestive diseases, Intestinal disease, Colonic disease, Rectal disease
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 99-0108096
Code Inist : 002B13B01. Création : 16/11/1999.