Epidemiological studies provide the primary data on the carcinogenic effects of radiation in humans.
Much of what is known has come from studies of the atomic bomb survivors, and to a lesser extent from patients receiving radiotherapy.
These studies demonstrate that exposure to moderate to high doses of radiation increases the risk of cancer in most organs.
For all solid cancers combined, cancers of the thyroid, breast and lung, and leukemia, risk estimates are fairly precise, and associations have been found at relatively low doses (<0.2 Gy).
Associations between radiation and cancers of the salivary glands, stomach, colon, bladder, ovary, central nervous system and skin have also been reported, but the relationships are not as well quantified.
Associations between radiation and cancers of the liver and esophagus, and to a lesser extent multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, have been reported in a few studies, but results are inconsistent.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and cancers of the pancreas, prostate, testis and cervix have rarely been linked to radiation exposure.
A linear no-threshold model adequately describes the dose-response relationship for solid cancers, although at extremely high doses the risk appears to flatten out.
Because few populations have been followed until the end of life, the temporal patterns of risk are not completely known.
An increased risk, however, does continue for several decades. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Tumeur maligne, Carcinogenèse, Facteur risque, Rayonnement ionisant, Association, Effet biologique, Homme, Relation dose réponse, Modélisation, Dosimétrie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Malignant tumor, Carcinogenesis, Risk factor, Ionizing radiation, Association, Biological effect, Human, Dose activity relation, Modeling, Dosimetry
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 99-0064811
Code Inist : 002B04E03. Création : 31/05/1999.