Short and long-term health effects from exposure to organophosphorus (OP) military and insecticidal nerve agents are evaluated based on the abundant scientific literature published over five decades on health effects in humans (from human experimentation and occupational exposures) and in laboratory animals.
Four distinct health effects are identified :
acute cholinergic toxicity ;
organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) ;
subtle long-term neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects ;
and a reversible muscular weakness called'intermediate syndrome'Some effects are subtle and difficult to differentiate from health effects caused by other diseases or occupational exposures.
Each effect has data suggesting threshold exposure levels below which it is unlikely to be clinically detectable, Therefore, meaningful interpretation of human and animal studies requires rigid exposure characterization.
Because precise exposure levels are often difficult to reconstruct, a system for characterizing exposure is proposed based upon observed initial acute signs and symptoms, as high-level (definitive cholinergic poisoning) ; intermediate-level (threshold cholinergic effects including miosis, rhinorrhea or clinically measurable depression of cholinesterase) ; and low-level (no immediate clinical signs or symptoms) exposure.
Threshold exposure levels for known long-term effects from OP nerve agent are at or above intermediate-level exposure. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Article synthèse, Toxicité, Organophosphoré, Phosphore Composé organique, Pesticide, Arme chimique, Homme, Système nerveux pathologie, Court terme, Long terme, Aigu, Anticholinestérasique, Toxicité retardée, Diagnostic, Pronostic, Epidémiologie, Médecine travail, Exposition professionnelle, Agriculture, Militaire
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Review, Toxicity, Organophosphorus compounds, Phosphorus Organic compounds, Pesticides, Chemical warfare agent, Human, Nervous system diseases, Short term, Long term, Acute, Anticholinesterase agent, Delayed toxicity, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Epidemiology, Occupational medicine, Occupational exposure, Agriculture, Military
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 99-0042584
Code Inist : 002B03L06. Création : 31/05/1999.