A review of the biomechanics and epidemiology of working postures : (it isn't always vibration which is to blame !).
International Conference on Whole-Body Vibration Injuries. Southampton, GBR, 1997/09/15.
Many vibrational environments also subject the worker to awkward, asymmetric and prolonged postures.
This paper reviews the epidemiological, biomechanical and physiological factors involved in working postures which could lead to musculoskeletal problems.
Too little or too much sitting leads to low back pain.
Sedentary postures, including driving, also lead to a higher risk of a herniated disc.
In sitting the pelvis rotates and higher pressures exist in the disk.
A backrest inclined to 110 or more and with a lumbar support will reduce the disk pressure.
Jobs involving excessive force application will be more apt to cause muscular and ligamentous damage.
However, these excessive demands can occur in whole body vibration environments too.
Neck, shoulder and arm problems are usually related to posture but can occur in WBV environments.
Knee problems, in the standing worker, may be due to a flexed knee posture in an attempt to attenuate vibrations.
Excessive postural demands on the neck, shoulder and arm will lead to higher muscle forces and higher joint forces.
Recommendations are given to reduce risk of disability.
Mots-clés Pascal : Homme, Biomécanique, Vibration, Posture, Exposition professionnelle, Epidémiologie, Position assise, Système ostéoarticulaire, Article synthèse, Bibliographie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Human, Biomechanics, Vibration, Posture, Occupational exposure, Epidemiology, Seated position, Osteoarticular system, Review, Bibliography
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0501020
Code Inist : 002B30B02A. Création : 19/02/1999.