Asian Battery Conference. Penang, MYS, 1997/09/03.
Lead has been known and used by man for thousands of years and its toxic properties have been known for almost as long.
In consequence, a wide body of legislation has built up and is designed to protect individuals in both the occupational and the general environments.
At the occupational level, two types of controls are widely employed, namely, lead-in-air and lead-in-blood.
Limits placed on the amount of lead-in-air are designed to ensure that individuals are not exposed to unsafe levels of lead via inhalation.
Currently, the most common standard is 0.15 mg m-3 but there is a clear downward trend and levels as low as 0.05 mg m-3 are mandatory in some countries.
Controls on the amount of lead-in-blood give a more direct indication of the exposure experienced by individuals.
The most common level presently employed is 70 mug m-3 but, as knowledge of the health effects of lead improves, lower levels are being introduced and 50 mug m-3 is now fairly common.
While women are no more sensitive to lead than men, some countries do employ lower blood-lead limits for women in the workplace in order to protect any developing foetus.
This paper examines the levels currently in force in various countries and describes developments which are now taking place in the legislation that is being enacted in several parts of the world.
As far as the general public is concerned, only a relatively small number of countries employ controls. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Métal lourd, Plomb, Toxicité, Homme, Polluant, Lieu travail, Environnement, Exposition professionnelle, Législation, Concentration maximale admissible, Dose limite, Epidémiologie, Tendance, Evolution
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Heavy metals, Lead, Toxicity, Human, Pollutant, Work place, Environment, Occupational exposure, Laws and legislation, Maximum permissible concentration, Limit dose, Epidemiology, Trend, Evolution
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0438338
Code Inist : 002B03L05. Création : 25/01/1999.