We examined the effect of the emergency response on medical and public health problems during the 1991 Gulf War in Israel.
On the first day of the conflict, the number of deaths from suffocation, asphyxiation, aspiration, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and cerebrovascular accident increasd abruptly, as did the number of sudden deaths associated with the use of tight-fitting masks with filters in sealed rooms.
Much of the excess risk for death from cardiorespiratory complications during the first alert may have been a consequence of its duration (140 minutes).
Mass evacuation and concrete buildings are believed to have kept the death toll from trauma down, and mask use may have protected against facial and upper-airway injuries.
Falls and hip fractures, airway irritation from exposure to bleach, carbon monoxide intoxication from open kerosene heaters in sealed rooms, and self-injection with atropine syringes were also noted.
A measles epidemic and increased death rates from automobile crashes were other preventable causes of death.
Protection against biological warfare was limited to surveillance of trends for pneumonia and gastroenteritis.
Emergency planners failed to anticipate the need for better mask fit, hands-on training in the use of masks, and special guidelines for older persons to prevent deaths from suffocation and other cardiovascular-respiratory problems in the first minutes of use. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Service urgence, Secours première urgence, Guerre, Stratégie, Morbidité, Mortalité, Evaluation, Homme, Israël, Asie, Organisation santé, Epidémiologie, Service santé, Soin intensif
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Emergency department, First emergency care, War, Strategy, Morbidity, Mortality, Evaluation, Human, Israel, Asia, Public health organization, Epidemiology, Health service, Intensive care
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0382468
Code Inist : 002B30A01A2. Création : 25/01/1999.