Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are the two main hepatitis viruses causing chronic liver diseases in children.
In hyperendemic areas, nearly half of the primary infection in chronic HBV carriers occurs during the perinatal period through the transmission from hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) - positive mothers.
The other half are from horizontal transmission mainly through intrafamilial spread or injection using unsterilized needles.
During the natural course of chronic HBV infection, spontaneous HBeAg/anti-HBe seroconversion occurs very rarely (2% annually) before 3 years of age.
After 3 years of age, the HBeAg seroconversion rate increases gradually to 5% per year.
Those with mothers who are hepatitis B carriers tend to clear HBeAg slower than those whose mothers are non-carriers.
Transplacental HBeAg may cause T cell tolerance in infected children.
Universal HBV immunization programmes have been effective in reducing the hepatitis B carrier rate more than 10-fold, and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children has also been decreased significantly.
Hepatitis C virus infection occurs mainly in high-risk children, such as those who received blood products (blood diseases, malignancies, post-open heart surgery etc.), children of HCV-infected mothers, and in hyperendemic areas, from injection using unsterile needles.
Mother-to-infant transmission occurs on average in 5% of infants of viraemic mothers. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Hépatite virale, Virose, Infection, Chronique, Virus hépatite B, Orthohepadnavirus, Hepadnaviridae, Virus, Virus hépatite C, Hepacivirus, Flaviviridae, Epidémiologie, Mode transmission, Antigène HBe, Néonatal, Exploration cytologique, Traitement, Immunoprophylaxie, Complication, Carcinome hépatocellulaire, Article synthèse, Enfant, Homme, Appareil digestif pathologie, Foie pathologie, Tumeur maligne
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Viral hepatitis, Viral disease, Infection, Chronic, Hepatitis B virus, Orthohepadnavirus, Hepadnaviridae, Virus, Hepatitis C virus, Hepacivirus, Flaviviridae, Epidemiology, Transmission mode, Hepatitis B e antigen, Neonatal, Cytologic investigation, Treatment, Immunoprophylaxis, Complication, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Review, Child, Human, Digestive diseases, Hepatic disease, Malignant tumor
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0287040
Code Inist : 002B05C02G. Création : 27/11/1998.