Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), commonly known as dioxins, form as unwanted impurities in the manufacturing of chlorophenol and its derivatives-pulp and paper-and in the combustion of municipal, sewage-sludge, hospital, and hazardous waste.
Combustion, in presence of a chlorine donor, seems to be a major source of these compounds.
High levels of dioxins are also emitted from metallurgical industries including copper smelters, electric furnaces in steel mills, and wire reclamation incinerators.
Trace levels are detectable in emissions from motor vehicles using leaded gasoline or diesel fuel, in forest fires, and in residential wood burning.
Extremely persistent and widely distributed in the environment, PCDDs have been detected in all three primary and many secondary media.
Releases into the air occur mainly from combustor emissions.
Atmospheric dispersion, deposition, and subsequent accumulation in the food chain seem to be the major pathways of exposure to the general population.
Residues of these chemicals have been detected in soil, sediment, fish, meat, cow's milk, human adipose tissue, and mothers'milk.
In general, these chemicals have high lipophilicity.
The elimination half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in humans is approximately 7-11 years.
Very little human toxicity data from exposure to PCDDs are available. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Dibenzo-p-dioxine(2,3,7,8-tétrachloro), Toxicité, Article synthèse, Homme, Dibenzo-p-dioxine(polychloro), Animal, Polluant, Environnement, Toxicocinétique, Pharmacocinétique
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Toxicity, Review, Human, Animal, Pollutant, Environment, Toxicokinetics, Pharmacokinetics
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0221882
Code Inist : 002B03L06. Création : 11/09/1998.