Accidental transmission of contagious pathogens, especially hepatitis C virus (HCV), by needlestick or other means as an occupational hazard for medical staff is of concern.
We retrospectively analysed cases of work-related accidental injury with pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reported to the centres for disease control at 15 hospitals (total 5776 beds) in the Gunma prefecture, Japan, from December 1990 to August 1993 (24.7 months).
There were 416 such cases (16.8 cases/month), with an incidence of 0.2-3.5 accidents per month per hospital.
Such accidents occurred in 297 (71.2%) nurses, 98 (23.5%) medical doctors, 13 (3%) laboratory technicians, four (1.0%) hospital maintenance workers, one (0.2%) assistant nurse, one secretary and two others.
There were 323 (77.6%) injuries caused by needlestick, 42 (10.1%) from suture needles or surgical knife cuts, 17 (4.1%) from blood splatters from patients into the eyes or mouth, 10 (2.4%) from contact with injured skin and 24 (5.8%) simple skin contacts.
Of the pathogens, 60.3% were HCV, 22.6% HBV, 5.8% syphilis, 0.7% HIV and 10.6% were of unknown origin.
Four cases (1.6%) of HCV infection were found and treated with one or two courses of interferon therapy, and HCV was subsequently cleared.
All four patients were cured with interferon therapy.
None of the HBV-injured cases resulted in infection, possibly because of prophylaxis with HB immunoglobulin and HB vaccine. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Hépatite virale C, Virose, Infection, Virus hépatite C, Hepacivirus, Flaviviridae, Virus, Exposition professionnelle, Equipe soignante, Contamination, Accident travail, Immunothérapie, Interféron, Epidémiologie, Homme, Appareil digestif pathologie, Foie pathologie, Médecine travail
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Viral hepatitis C, Viral disease, Infection, Hepatitis C virus, Hepacivirus, Flaviviridae, Virus, Occupational exposure, Health care staff, Contamination, Occupational accident, Immunotherapy, Interferon, Epidemiology, Human, Digestive diseases, Hepatic disease, Occupational medicine
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0207539
Code Inist : 002B05C02G. Création : 11/09/1998.