The quantitative and qualitative estimations of the primary and secondary wind drifts of pesticides for various methods of their applications (aerial and ground sprayings) have been presented.
Both the experimental and calculated data coupled with mathematical model simulations have been used.
The models involve numerical computation of the equations for wind turbulent diffusion of aerosol and vapour impurities in the atmosphere surface layer near the treated field.
The meteophysical parameters necessary for mathematical simulation have been determined either from field experiments or using the aerodynamic stand, and have been calculated either theoretically or from empirical relations.
The validity of models have been verified early in field experiments, i.e. using a special travelling generator of pesticide aerosols with adjustable aerosol sizes, within 1-30 mum.
The models have been used to predict the aerosol and vapour pesticide concentrations in air, for different meteorological conditions, at different heights and distances from impurity sources (aerosol generator, airplane, sprayer, surface of the field contaminated with pesticides).
The potential specific inhalation intakes of aerosol and vapour pesticides which can penetrate human breathing organs have been estimated.
The primary aerosol drifts in the Optimum Aerosol Technology (OAT) were no more than the similar values for aerial and ground sprayings and were lower than medical standards. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Pollution air, Agriculture, Pulvérisation, Pesticide, Insecticide, Inventaire source pollution, Devenir polluant, Condition météorologique, Action vent, Impact environnement, Simulation numérique, Etude sur terrain
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Air pollution, Agriculture, Spraying, Pesticides, Insecticide, Pollution source inventory, Pollutant behavior, Atmospheric condition, Wind effect, Environment impact, Numerical simulation, Field study
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0112800
Code Inist : 001D16C02. Création : 22/06/1998.