Le principe de précaution : définitions, controverses et application au domaine des champs électromagnétiques.
Traduction en anglais : The precautionary principle : definitions, disputes and application to emf's.
Supporters of the precautionary principle rely on an emerging awaress in public opinion as regards a new vulnerability of nature due to the technical business of man, in order to advocate measures aimed at preventing risks of damage to the Environment or health or to alleviate their effects, even when the existence of risks is not scientifically shown.
Three kinds of legitimacy are mobilized to justify application of the principle common sense ( « when in doubt, do nothing »), the heuristic of fear (the requirement of transparency, listening to the « prophets of doom ») and pragmatism (applying the principle contribuates to the development of scientific knowledge and reduces anxiety in public opinion).
The precautionary principle brings about a « reversal of the burden of proof'to give the Environment » the benefit of the doubt « . Several criteria are used to decide on the time from which application of the principle is triggered : the » negative list « (list of authorized products, all others having to prove that they are harmless), preliminary authorization (all products being considered hazardous in principle, marketing new products requires a case by case » accreditation procedure ) and lastly probability thresholds or damages indices (all products exceeding this threshold being considered to be hazardous). (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Protection environnement, Champ électromagnétique, Analyse risque, Prise décision, Principe précaution
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Environmental protection, Electromagnetic field, Risk analysis, Decision making, Precautionary principle
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0101274
Code Inist : 001D16E. Création : 22/06/1998.