Hepatitis viruses in water : Update on risk and control.
Three different hepatitis viruses, designated hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis E (HEV) and hepatitis F (HFV) are now known to be transmitted by water.
HAV has a long history of water-borne transmission in all parts of the world.
HEV has been discovered only recently, and is now known to cause outbreaks of clinical disease in certain parts of the world.
Indications are that HFV causes sporadic cases in restricted areas.
Although the mortality of infections caused by all three viruses is relatively low, clinical disease may be severe and incapacitating.
Case fatality rates of 20 to 40% are on record for HEV infections in pregnant women.
HAV is endemic in most of the population of South Africa.
Recent evidence indicates that HEV is also endemic, with high incidence in some communities.
Although HFV has not yet been recorded in the country, it could be imported rapidly.
The risk of waterborne hepatitis in South Africa should, therefore, not be underestimated.
The risk can be expected to increase as a result of population growth and escalating demands on limited water resources.
Since vaccines are available only for HAV, and no meaningful treatment is available for any of the viruses, control of the diseases depends on prevention of transmission.
This implies a major responsibility for the water industry and related health authorities.
No practical methods are available for direct detection of any of the viruses. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Hépatite virale A, Virose, Infection, Hépatite virale E, Epidémiologie, Qualité eau, Contrôle microbiologique, Contamination biologique, Virus hépatite E, Calicivirus, Caliciviridae, Virus, Virus hépatite A, Hepatovirus, Picornaviridae, Homme, Prévention, Approvisionnement eau, Surveillance, Eau potable, Appareil digestif pathologie, Foie pathologie, République Sud Africaine, Afrique, Recommandation, Virus hépatite F
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Viral hepatitis A, Viral disease, Infection, Viral hepatitis E, Epidemiology, Water quality, Microbiological testing, Biological contamination, Hepatitis E virus, Calicivirus, Caliciviridae, Virus, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatovirus, Picornaviridae, Human, Prevention, Water supply, Surveillance, Drinking water, Digestive diseases, Hepatic disease, South Africa, Africa, Recommendation
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 98-0071838
Code Inist : 002B05C02G. Création : 14/05/1998.