Assessment of the exposure of swimmers to microbiological contaminants in fresh waters.
IAWQ international symposium on health-related water microbiology. Mallorca (ESP), 1996/10/06.
As part of a prospective cohort study among triathletes to determine a relationship between the microbiological quality of fresh bathing water and the risk of acquiring an intestinal infection, the exposure of the triathletes to microbiological contaminants was assessed.
Waters were collected at seven triathlons (swimming course 1-1.5km) held in the summer of 1993 and 1994 to have a range of water qualities.
All were influenced by sewage effluents, most also by agricultural run-off.
Samples were collected several weeks before the event to establish a sampling programme (1993) and during the actual exposure of the triathletes (1993 and 1994) and examined for thermotolerant coliforms alone (samples preceding the event) and for E. coli, faecal enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus.
F-specific RNAphages, enteroviruses (1993 and 1994) and for thermophilic Capylobacter.
Salmonella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1993).
The samples taken in the weeks before the exposure showed significant differences in thermotolerant coliform concentration between locations, depths and times.
Also during swimmer exposure, significant differences occurred in microorganism levels at the different sampling points over the swimming course.
As the triathletes swam as a group, they were exposed to approximately the same water at the same time.
The geometric mean concentration was used to characterise each site. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Pollution eau, Eau surface, Baignade, Qualité eau, Contamination biologique, Facteur risque, Bactérie, Enterovirus, Picornaviridae, Virus, Bactériophage, Milieu eau douce, Intestin pathologie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Water pollution, Surface water, Bathing, Water quality, Biological contamination, Risk factor, Bacteria, Enterovirus, Picornaviridae, Virus, Phage, Freshwater environment, Intestinal disease
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 97-0518248
Code Inist : 001D16A04C. Création : 13/02/1998.