The contribution of inhalation exposure to the total dose for residents of the Marshall Islands was monitored at occasions of opportunity on several islands in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.
To determine the long-term potential for inhalation exposure, and to understand the mechanisms of redistribution and personal exposure, additional investigations were undertaken on Bikini Island under modified and controlled conditions.
Experiments were conducted to provide key parameters for the assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols : characterization of the contribution of plutonium in soil-borne aerosols as compared to sea spray and organic aerosols, determination of plutonium resuspension rates as measured by the meteorological flux-gradient method during extreme conditions of a bare-soil vs. a stabilized surface, determination of the approximate individual exposures to resuspended plutonium by traffic, and studies of exposures to individuals in different occupational environments simulated by personal air sampling of workers assigned to a variety of tasks.
Enhancement factors (defined as ratios of the plutonium-activity of suspended aerosols relative to the plutonium-activity of the soil) were determined to be less than 1 (typically 0.4 to 0.7) in the undisturbed, vegetated areas, but greater than 1 (as high as 3) for the case studies of disturbed bare soil, roadside travel, and for occupational duties in fields and in and around houses.
Mots-clés Pascal : Marshall, Micronésie, Océanie, Radiocontamination, Inhalation, Monitorage, Analyse risque, Réaction redistribution, Estimation paramètre, Plutonium, Mécanisme réaction, Pollution sol, Dosimétrie, Long terme
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Oceania, Radioactive contamination, Inhalation, Monitoring, Risk analysis, Redistribution reaction, Parameter estimation, Plutonium, Reaction mechanism, Soil pollution, Dosimetry, Long term
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 97-0407010
Code Inist : 002A08F05. Création : 19/12/1997.