Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology.
By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers.
Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928.
The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937.
New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939.
After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948.
Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946.
Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its « Servicio Nacional de Salud » in 1952.
India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees'State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents.
Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Assurance maladie, Protection sociale, International, Historique
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Health insurance, Welfare aids, International, Case history
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 97-0351167
Code Inist : 002B30A01B. Création : 12/09/1997.