Human exposure and body burden for chloroform and other trihalomethanes.
Existing information on human exposure to chloroform and other trihalomethanes (THMs) in air, water, and food is summarized.
Three major surveys have collected data on chloroform levels in finished water at treatment plants.
EPA's TEAM Studies have measured concentrations of THMs in residential drinking water and in personal, indoor, outdoor, and expired air from about 800 participants in eight cities.
The Food and Drug Administration has surveyed chloroform levels in food and beverages.
Recently, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have completed measuring blood levels of THMs in about 1000 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Exposure occurs through ingestion (drinking tap water and soft drinks and eating certain dairy foods), inhalation (breathing peak amounts of chloroform emitted during showers or baths, and lower levels in indoor air from other indoor sources), and dermal absorption (during showers, baths, and swimming).
Each of these routes of exposure appear to be potentially substantial contributors to total exposure.
The major source of exposure to chloroform is chlorination of water supplies.
This results in exposure through ingestion of drinking water, but also through inhalation and skin absorption as a result of the myriad other uses of chlorinated water in the home : showers, baths, washing clothes and dishes, etc. (...)
Mots-clés Pascal : Chloroforme, Air expiré, Sang, Polluant, Lait femme, Tissu adipeux, Air, Toxicocinétique, Eau, Aliment, Traitement eau potable, Produit laitier, Contamination, Inhalation, Piscine, Voie orale, Voie externe, Article synthèse, Exposition, Sous produit, Désinfection, Organochloré, Composé volatil, Taux, Homme, Etats Unis, Amérique du Nord, Amérique, Méthane(trihalogéno)
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Chloroform, Expired air, Blood, Pollutant, Human milk, Adipose tissue, Air, Toxicokinetics, Water, Food, Drinking water treatment, Dairy product, Contamination, Inhalation, Swimming pool, Oral administration, Topical administration, Review, Exposure, By product, Disinfection, Organochlorine compounds, Volatile compound, Rate, Human, United States, North America, America
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 97-0299584
Code Inist : 002B03M01. Création : 15/07/1997.