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  1. Risk assessment as a management tool used to assess the effect of pesticide use in an irrigation system, situated in a semi-desert region.

    Article - En anglais

    A preliminary study undertaken by the CSIR in July 1993 on the health effects of aerial crop spraying of pesticides in the Vaalharts irrigation area in South Africa indicated that potential health risks could exist for the inhabitants of this area.

    An extensive scientific health risk assessment and epidemiological study to determine the actual health risks, is very expensive and requires medical and financial justification.

    The aim of this study was to develop a theoretical health risk model, which could be used as a predictive tool to determine as accurately as possible from the data available if a complete scientific health risk assessment study is justified.

    The actual amounts of pesticides sold in the Vaalharts area by two major pesticide manufacturers were used to perform a theoretical health risk assessment.

    The risks were assessed by making use of RISK*ASSISTANT, a computer modeling system and chemical database.

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) health risk model was applied to the data to identify the hazards, assess the exposures and dose response, and characterize the risks.

    Three exposure scenarios, namely, the ingestion of food and water and the inhalation of air were evaluated.

    The method used to calculate the risks varied according to the type of health hazard and the results were characterized accordingly.

    The acute health effects due to exposure to pesticides are well known and the risks are easy to determine. (...)

    Mots-clés Pascal : Pesticide, Zone résidentielle, Exposition, Non professionnel, Pulvérisation, République Sud Africaine, Afrique, Homme, Toxicité, Zone semi aride, Réseau irrigation, Prédiction, Population, Evaluation, Risque, Méthodologie

    Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Pesticides, Residential zone, Exposure, Non occupational, Spraying, South Africa, Africa, Human, Toxicity, Semi arid zone, Irrigation network, Prediction, Population, Evaluation, Risk, Methodology

    Logo du centre Notice produite par :
    Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique

    Cote : 97-0245412

    Code Inist : 002B03G. Création : 11/06/1997.