This paper describes a methodology that can be used to determine the demographic composition of a population aflicted by the release of toxic substances at truck accident sites.
In this Geographic Plume Analysis (GPA) approach, a chemical dispersion model provides a toxic dispersal « footprint », given information about local weather conditions and the type of chemical released.
This footprint is superimposed on a demographic database to determine the composition of the affected population.
The GPA approach is tested in the city of Des Moines, Iowa, to determine whether different racial and income groups are disproportionately affected by the hazards from accidents.
The locations of 45 intersections that experienced the highest frequency of truck accidents from 1990 to 1992 were obtained.
At each location, a plume footprint was generated, based on the release of chlorine, a commonly transported toxic material in Des Moines.
Similar plumes were generated at 50 random locations in the city and similar estimates were made.
The results indicated that areas most likely to experience exposure to hazardous materials transported by trucks were those with a higher proportion of minorities and low-income households, as compared to the city as a whole.
Mots-clés Pascal : Polluant, Etude socioéconomique, Air, Accident, Véhicule routier, Camion, Produit dangereux, Toxique, Composé chimique, Toxicité, Homme, Population, Evaluation, Risque, Milieu urbain, Dispersion atmosphérique, Temps météorologique, Méthodologie, Répartition géographique, Modélisation
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Pollutant, Socioeconomic study, Air, Accident, Road vehicle, Lorry, Dangerous product, Poison, Chemical compound, Toxicity, Human, Population, Evaluation, Risk, Urban environment, Atmospheric dispersion, Weather
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 97-0224916
Code Inist : 002B03M01. Création : 11/06/1997.