During 1976-1995,48 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of ~17,000 cases were reported worldwide.
Outbreaks occurred on most continents, affected from 0.1 to 52 persons per 100,000 total population (median, 4.4), lasted 2-25 months (median, 7), typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated subgroups within highly immunized communities, and were primarily caused by poliovirus type 1 (74%). Cases in developing countries occurred predominantly among children<2 years of age, while those in industrialized countries tended to occur in older persons who had escaped natural infection earlier in life and who had not been vaccinated or had received poliovirus vaccine of inadequate potency.
Partial genomic sequencing studies indicated that at least 15 outbreaks resulted from importation of wild polioviruses, primarily from the Indian subcontinent.
These findings illustrate the potential for wide dissemination of wild poliovirus infection and underscore the critical need for maintaining high levels of immunity in all countries and for more aggressive vaccination efforts in areas in which polio is endemic.
Mots-clés Pascal : Poliomyélite antérieure, Virose, Infection, Poliovirus, Enterovirus, Picornaviridae, Virus, Complication, Paralysie, Flasque, Incidence, Prévalence, Morbidité, Epidémiologie, Homme, Système nerveux pathologie, Système nerveux central pathologie, Moelle épinière pathologie, Trouble moteur
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Acute anterior poliomyelitis, Viral disease, Infection, Poliovirus, Enterovirus, Picornaviridae, Virus, Complication, Paralysis, Flange, Incidence, Prevalence, Morbidity, Epidemiology, Human, Nervous system diseases, Central nervous system disease, Spinal cord disease, Motor system disorder
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 97-0188134
Code Inist : 002B30A01C. Création : 21/05/1997.