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  1. Crack cocaine and cocaine hydrochloride : Are the differences myth or reality ?

    Article - En anglais

    Objective

    - To review and discuss the differences and similarities between the use of crack cocaine and cocaine hydrochloride ; and to determine how these findings might affect policies on the imprisonment and treatment of cocaine users.

    Data Sources

    - English-language publications were identified through a computerized search (using MEDLINE) between 1976 and 1996 using the search terms « smoked cocaine, » « crack cocaine, » « freebase, » and « cocaine-base. » In addition, manual searches were conducted on references cited in original research articles, reviews, and an annotated bibliography, and on selected joumals.

    Study Selection

    - Only those articles that compared various routes of cocaine administration or types of cocaine (cocaine base or crack cocaine vs cocaine hydrochloride) were examined.

    Data Extraction

    - Studies were reviewed to obtain information on the composition of the 2 forms of cocaine, and the prevalence, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, abuse liability, pattem of use, and consequences across the various routes of cocaine administration and forms of cocaine.

    Conclusion

    - Cocaine hydrochloride is readily converted to base prior to use.

    The physiological and psychoactive effects of cocaine are similar regardless of whether it is in the form of cocaine hydrochloride or crack cocaine (cocaine base). (...)

    Mots-clés Pascal : Cocaïne, Chlorhydrate, Diagnostic différentiel, Pharmacocinétique, Prévalence, Pharmacovigilance, Toxicomanie, Facteur risque, Traitement, Responsabilité pénale, Prévention, Homme, Utilisation, Voie intraveineuse, Voie intranasale, Article synthèse, Système nerveux pathologie, Réanimation

    Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Cocaine, Hydrochlorides, Differential diagnostic, Pharmacokinetics, Prevalence, Pharmacovigilance, Drug addiction, Risk factor, Treatment, Penal responsibility, Prevention, Human, Use, Intravenous administration, Intranasal administration, Review, Nervous system diseases, Resuscitation

    Logo du centre Notice produite par :
    Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique

    Cote : 97-0055329

    Code Inist : 002B03D. Création : 21/05/1997.