Drinking water has been implicated as the mode of transmission in several outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis throughout the United States.
This review of US outbreaks describes characteristics of the raw water supply, suspected sources of contamination, water treatment methods, and corrective actions.
Of the total number of outbreaks, roughly half were associated with groundwater sources ; the majority of affected individuals, however, were served by drinking water drawn from surface water.
Wastewater was implicated as the source of contamination of raw or treated water for roughly half of the outbreaks.
Nonpoint sources, such as agricultural runoff, were suspected sources of contamination in the remaining outbreaks.
The majority of affected individuals were served by treatment plants using coagulant addition, filtration, and chlorine disinfection processes.
Although treatment deficiencies and suboptimal operational practices were noted during some of the outbreaks, all treatment plants were complying with federal and local regulations.
Existing regulations and water supply systems, especially those utilizing surface water sources, should be reevaluated.
Mots-clés Pascal : Cryptosporidiose, Protozoose, Parasitose, Infection, Homme, Foyer infectieux, Contamination biologique, Eau potable, Traitement eau potable, Approvisionnement eau, Eau usée, Réglementation, Toxicité, Etats Unis, Amérique du Nord, Amérique, Appareil digestif pathologie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Cryptosporidiosis, Protozoal disease, Parasitosis, Infection, Human, Infectious focus, Biological contamination, Drinking water, Drinking water treatment, Water supply, Waste water, Regulation, Toxicity, United States, North America, America, Digestive diseases
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 96-0419510
Code Inist : 002B05E02B9. Création : 10/04/1997.