Twenty-five years of wastewater reclamation in Windhoek, Namibia.
IAWQ international symposium on wastewater reclamation and reuse. Iraklio GRC, 1995/10/17.
In 1968, a direct water reclamation system from domestic sewage was pioneered in Windhoek, Namibia, to supplement the potable water supply to the city.
This system went through a succession of modifications and improvements over the years, but consistently produced water of acceptable quality, as evidenced a comprehensive chemical, bacteriological, virological, and epidemiological monitoring.
Now, in 1995, Windhoek is again facing a shortfall of potable water in the light of a population increase (growing at 6% to 8% per annum) and increasing water demand, and is currently extending the water reclamation system from the previous 4800 to 21000 m3. d-1, the maximum attainable.
All the components of the reclamation system are being reviewed and re-analyzed ; demand management, diversion of some industrial effluents, wastewater treatment, water reclamation, oxidation and adsorption technologies, blending of reclaimed wastewater with other sources, buildup of salinity, treatment costs, and monitoring and quality control strategies.
The practical experience at Windhoek demonstrates that a direct wastewater reclamation system is a practical, responsible way of augmenting potable water supplies in arid regions, but that it requires comprehensive planning, training and on-going commitment for its continued success.
Mots-clés Pascal : Epuration eau usée, Réclamation, Réutilisation, Qualité eau, Contrôle, Approvisionnement eau, Namibie, Afrique
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Waste water purification, Protest, Reuse, Water quality, Check, Water supply, Namibia, Africa
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 96-0385513
Code Inist : 001D16A07. Création : 10/04/1997.