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  1. Fulltext. Reducing death on the road : The effects of minimum safety standards, publicized crash tests, seat belts, and alcohol.

    Article - En anglais

    Fulltext.

    Objectives

    Two phases of attempts to improve passenger car crashworthiness have occurred : minimum safety standards and publicized crash tests.

    This study evaluated these attempts, as well as changes in seat belt and alcohol use, in terms of their effect on occupant death and fatal crash rates.

    Methods

    Data on passenger car occupant fatalities and total involvement in fatal crashes, for 1975 through 1991, were obtained from the Fatal Accident Reporting System.

    Rates per mile were calculated through published sources on vehicle use by vehicle age.

    Regression estimates of effects of regulation, publicized crash tests, seat belt use, and alcohol involvement were obtained.

    Results

    Substantial reductions in fatalities occurred in the vehicle model years from the late 1960s throuth most of the 1970s, when federal. standards were applied.

    Some additional increments in reduced death rates, attributable to additional improved vehicles crashworthiness, occurred during the period of publicized crash tests.

    Increased seat belt use and reduced alcohol use also contributed significantly to reduced deaths.

    Conclusions

    Minimum safety standards, crashworthiness improvements, seat belt use laws, and reduced alcohol use each contributed to a large reduction in passenger car occupant deaths.

    Mots-clés Pascal : Sécurité trafic, Trafic routier, Prévention accident, Accident circulation, Etude expérimentale, Ceinture sécurité, Consommation, Ethanol, Mortalité, Homme, Etats Unis, Amérique du Nord, Amérique

    Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Traffic safety, Road traffic, Accident prevention, Traffic accident, Experimental study, Safety belt, Consumption, Ethanol, Mortality, Human, United States, North America, America

    Logo du centre Notice produite par :
    Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique

    Cote : 96-0275086

    Code Inist : 002B30A03C. Création : 199608.