The objectives of this paper are threefold :
first, to develop a taxonomy of potential benefits from voluntary, routine HIV-antibody testing of hospital patients ;
second, to inform attending healthcare workers, hospital patients and policy makers of the potential benefits from such testing ;
and third, to make inferences about whether such testing is warranted by a cost-benefit criterion.
Benefits stemming from information about a patient's HIV serostatus accrue to :
(I) healthcare workers if extra precautions reduce their HIV-exposure rate ;
(2) the patient if knowledge of HIV serostatus allows life-extending prophylactic treatment to be initiated ;
and (3) the patient's sex partners if the patient is less likely to transmit HIV after undergoing HIV testing.
Using recent estimates on the value of life, hospital-specific HIV-prevalence rates, the effectiveness of prophylactic treatment, rates of HIV exposure and conversion by healthcare workers, and reduction in high-risk sexual behaviors by seropositive patients, we estimate the benefits of testing as the value of statistical life saved.
The opportunity cost of HIV testing is calculated as the reported cost of a standard HIV-test protocol with pre-and post-test counseling.
Information about a patient's HIV serostatus provides small expected benefits to healthcare workers ($3.34) because the risk of HIV transmission is small ; benefits to attending healthcare workers are insufficient to warrant routine HI...
Mots-clés Pascal : Programme sanitaire, Milieu hospitalier, Dépistage, SIDA, Homme, Volontariat, Analyse avantage coût, Economie santé, Etats Unis, Virose, Infection, Amérique du Nord, Amérique, Immunopathologie, Immunodéficit
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Sanitary program, Hospital environment, Medical screening, AIDS, Human, Volunteering, Cost benefit analysis, Health economy, United States, Viral disease, Infection, North America, America, Immunopathology, Immune deficiency
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 96-0227712
Code Inist : 002B30A01C. Création : 199608.