Epidemiologic studies in the past two decades have firmly established a relationship between regular, heavier alcohol consumption and hypertension.
This association has been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and prospective studies.
It is found in both sexes and several races and is independent of the type of alcoholic beverage, adiposity, education, smoking, salt intake, and several other traits.
Clinical experiments show that blood pressure falls in days to weeks with abstinence from alcohol and that it rises again within days after resuming drinking.
No mechanism has been demonstrated for this alcohol/blood pressure effect.
Alcohol withdrawal symptoms have not been seen in the clinical experiments ; thus, this is not likely to be the major explanation.
Studies of the role of alcohol in hypertension sequelae, such as coronary heart disease and stroke, have been difficult because of the effects of alcohol, independent of blood pressure, in these conditions.
Overall, it is likely that this alcohol-hypertension relation is causal.
Restriction of intake by heavier drinkers lowers blood pressure in some, and heavy alcohol ingestion should always be considered by clinicians as a possible hypertension risk factor.
Mots-clés Pascal : Homme, Ethanol, Boisson alcoolisée, Consommation, Dose faible, Prévention, Epidémiologie, Facteur risque, Article synthèse, Hypertension artérielle, Appareil circulatoire pathologie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Human, Ethanol, Alcoholic beverage, Consumption, Low dose, Prevention, Epidemiology, Risk factor, Review, Hypertension, Cardiovascular disease
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 96-0219700
Code Inist : 002B12B05A. Création : 199608.