In the United States, transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by blood transfusion occurs almost exclusively when a recently infected blood donor is infectious but before antibodies to HIV become detectable (during the « window period »). We estimated the risk of HIV transmission caused by transfusion on the basis of the window period associated with the use of current, sensitive enzyme immunosorbent assays and recent data on HIV incidence among blood donors.
We analyzed demographic and laboratory data on more than 4.1 million blood donations obtained in 1992 and 1993 in 19 regions served by the American National Red Cross, as well as the results of HIV-anti-body tests of 4.9 million donations obtained in an additional 23 regions.
We estimated that, in the 19 study regions, 1 donation in every 360,000 (95 percent confidence interval, 210,000 to 1,140,000) was made during the window period.
In addition, it is estimated that 1 in 2,600,000 donations was HIV-seropositive but was not identified as such because of an error in the laboratory.
We estimated that 15 to 42 percent of window-period donations were discarded because they were seropositive on laboratory tests other than the HIV-antibody test.
When these results were extrapolated to include the additional 23 Red Cross service regions, there was a risk of 1 case of HIV transmission for every 450,000 to 660,000 donations of screened blood.
If the Red Cross centers...
Mots-clés Pascal : SIDA, Virose, Infection, Virus immunodéficience humaine, Lentivirinae, Retroviridae, Virus, Contamination, Transfusion, Sang, Facteur risque, Incidence, Dépistage, Sensibilité, Etude statistique, Homme, Etats Unis, Amérique du Nord, Amérique, Immunopathologie, Immunodéficit
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : AIDS, Viral disease, Infection, Human immunodeficiency virus, Lentivirinae, Retroviridae, Virus, Contamination, Transfusion, Blood, Risk factor, Incidence, Medical screening, Sensitivity, Statistical study, Human, United States, North America, America, Immunopathology, Immune deficiency
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 96-0076672
Code Inist : 002B06D01. Création : 199608.