Schizophrenia and psychostimulant abuse : a review and re-analysis of clinical evidence.
The authors selected articles from those published between 1975 and 1994 that specifically documented psychostimulant abuse in patients determined to be schizophrenic according to recent and relatively uniform diagnostic criteria.
These articles indicated that the incidence of psychostimulant abuse in schizophrenics is 2-5 times higher than that of the general public.
Additionally, unlike the decline in stimulant use seen in older adults in the general population, high rates of abuse appeared to be maintained in schizophrenics.
Although the incidence of abuse in this group was high, comparisons of abuse rates generated by self-report with those obtained by urinalysis indicated that the frequency of abuse is being underestimated by 15-21%. Potential factors contributing to stimulant abuse in schizophrenics, including the disease process, and the influence of chronic neuroleptic medication, were evaluated.
In a majority of the studies surveyed, abuse of stimulants followed disease onset.
It was also found that stimulant abuse was associated with marked increases in hospitalization in this patient group, including those known to be neuroleptic medication compliant.
Possible explanations for the initiation and maintenance of psychostimulant abuse in schizophrenics are discussed in relation to clinical and preclinical evidence on drug addiction.
Mots-clés Pascal : Homme, Stimulant SNC, Psychotrope, Schizophrénie, Psychose, Substance toxicomanogène, Dépendance, Toxicomanie, Toxicité, Epidémiologie, Article synthèse, Complication
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Human, CNS stimulant, Psychotropic, Schizophrenia, Psychosis, Drug of abuse, Dependence, Drug addiction, Toxicity, Epidemiology, Review, Complication
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 96-0045172
Code Inist : 002B03D. Création : 01/03/1996.