The effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection on birthweight, and infant and child mortality in urban Malawi.
Low birthweight, prematurity and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) are major determinants of child survival.
Therefore, it is important to assess excess mortality due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in populations where low birthweight is common.
A prospective study was conducted on 1385 children born to seropositive and seronegative women in urban Malawi.
Children were regularly examined and tested for HIV.
The mortality rate of children of HIV seropositive mothers was substantially higher (223/1000 at 12 months, 317/1000 at 24 months and 360/1000 at 30 months) than that of children of seronegative mothers (68/1000 at 12 months, 106/1000 at 24 months and 118/1000 at 30 months).
The incidence of prematurity and IUGR was also higher in infants of HIV seropositive mothers than in infants of seronegative mothers (12.7% versus 3.8%, P<0.001 for premature and 7.7% versus 4.4%, P 0.02 for IUGR infants).
The substantial difference in survival among children of HIV infected and uninfected mothers suggests that mortality could be reduced if HIV infection were not a risk factor.
To decrease childhood mortality, a combination of interventions such as treatment of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy and measures to reduce mother-to-infant transmission should be adopted.
Mots-clés Pascal : Malawi, Afrique, Milieu urbain, Virus immunodéficience humaine, Lentivirinae, Retroviridae, Virus, Nourrisson, Homme, Poids naissance, Survie, Enfant, Mortalité, Epidémiologie
Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Malawi, Africa, Urban environment, Human immunodeficiency virus, Lentivirinae, Retroviridae, Virus, Infant, Human, Birth weight, Survival, Child, Mortality, Epidemiology
Notice produite par :
Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique
Cote : 95-0565015
Code Inist : 002B06D01. Création : 01/03/1996.