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  1. Improving human welfare through appropriate technology : government responsibility, citizen duty or customer choice.

    Article - En anglais

    This paper explores recent attempts to improve the effectiveness of environmental health programmes and projects by reference to the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1980-1990) and beyond.

    Reference is made to how water and sanitation as technical interventions have drawn upon the natural sciences, notably concepts of race and sex, and the social sciences including culture and gender, for their authority and legitimacy.

    A new and apparently progressive movement, the Water Decade sought to challenge the powerful and enduring high tech image of development on which much western environmental and social transformations have been based.

    Beginning as a critique of modernism with a commitment to basic needs as human rights, it was driven by a recognition that sophisticated technology could not satisfy human health needs.

    Alternative technologies would, by contrast, cater for a more extensive and varied market and would promote participatory approaches to service delivery.

    The paper demonstrates how, during the course of the Decade, sections of the aid community began to redefine basic needs as commodities involving the efficient marketing and delivery of a product with minimal state intervention.

    Within a shifting international political and economic context, it examines the changing role of the expert and the links being forged between large donors, non-governmental organisations and the private sector.

    Mots-clés Pascal : Technologie, Besoin, Adaptation, Hygiène, Réseau adduction eau, Approvisionnement eau, Eau potable, Communauté, Participation, Politique sanitaire, Participation communautaire

    Mots-clés Pascal anglais : Technology, Need, Adaptation, Hygiene, Water supply system network, Water supply, Drinking water, Community, Participation, Health policy

    Logo du centre Notice produite par :
    Inist-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique

    Cote : 95-0255061

    Code Inist : 002B30A01C. Création : 01/03/1996.